Introduction about cold heading technology

What Is Cold Heading?

Heading is a metalworking process which incorporates the forging ,extruding and upsetting process.It is often performed in the cold state, resulting in cold working. Cold heading is a process that progressively forming a specified shape from metal wire without adding heat-using but a replicated series of dies, hammers at a high speed.the work piece undergoes cold working to alter the shape of the metal to near the net shape (almost finished stage) under cold temperatures, which means the final product is almost finished although it can sometimes create the final product less plating or heat treating.The process is mainly used for manufacturing bolts, nuts, nails, rivets and steel balls and other parts.

An important consideration in heading is the tendency for the wire to buckle if its unsupported length to diameter ratio is too high. This ratio usually is limited to less than 3:1 but with appropriate dies, it can be higher.

Some advantages of cold heading a part over using a CNC lathe or Swiss screw machine include reduced part cost both through production speed (60-400 parts per minute) and the minimal scrap generated from a cold headed part. Also, because the part is formed rather than cut, the grain flow stays intact and creates a much stronger part for its size.

Cold formed technology have been used in the fastener industry for over a hundred years,Upsets and extrusions are two basic types of techniques used in cold headed manufacturing.In the last decades,the limit of cold heading has been pushed up with the improving of machine technology.

There are a variety of cold heading machines but typically for fastener manufacturing you will see One Die Two Blow up to Five Die Six Blow and beyond. Multi-Die headers allow for more complex parts to be formed as part of one process due to the above limitations of diameter ratio reductions.

Contrast to cutting technology, cold heading technology has benefits in many ways.

  •  Tight Tolerances
  •  High Efficiency
  •  High Material utilization
  •  Improved Physical Properties
  •  Reduction in Cost Vs Machining
  •  Capabilities Include a Large Range of Diameters
  •  improved precision of products

Except carbon steel,metal material in cold heading can also be copper, aluminum, alloy steel, stainless steel and titanium alloy, material utilization rate can reach 80 ~ 90%.Meanwhile,Cold heading process has the following requirements for raw materials

  •  Higher plasticity and lower hardness
  •  Demanding surface quality  
  •  High accuracy requirements
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